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Question: 
Who are the professionals most likely to identify and intercept a health care error?

Answer: Nurses

 
Nurses are the professionals most likely to identify and prevent a healthcare error. Supporting research studies are below:
 

Nurses catch most medical errors, Nursing2006: August 2006 - Volume 36 - Issue 8 - p 33, Clinical Rounds: News, Updates, Research: Patient Safety

Leape LL, Bates DW, Cullen DJ, et al. System analysis of adverse drug events. JAMA. 1995;274:35–43.

Rothschild JM, Landrigan CP, Cronin JW, et al. The Critical Care Safety Study: The incidence and nature of adverse events and serious medical errors in intensive care. Critica Care Medicine. 2005;33:1694–1700.

Rothschild JM, Hurley AC, Landrigan CP, et al. Recovery from medical errors: the critical care nursing safety net. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2006;32:63–72.

Bracco D, Favre JB, Bissonnette B, et al. Human errors in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit: a one-year study. Intensive Care Medicine. 2001;27:137–145.

Balas MC, Scott LD, Rogers AE. Frequency and type of errors and near errors reported by critical care nurses. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research. 2006;38:24–41.

Henneman EA, Gawlinski A. A "near-miss" model for describing the nurse's role in the recovery of medical errors. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2004;20(3):196–201.

Rogers AE, Dean GE, Hwang W-T, Scott LD, Role of registered nurses in error prevention, discovery and correction, 18 July 2007, Quality and Safety in Health Care 2008;17:117–121. doi:10.1136/qshc.2007.022699